Using a numbering system where numbers are put at the end of the quote/paraphrase and a corresponding number is put at the bottom of the page with the reference information. The reference is ALSO included in the List of References or Bibliography at the end of your assignment or essay.
Footnoting is used in History but not in all subjects; Geography, for example, uses in text citation. Check with your teacher in other subjects to know what their expectation is.
At CGGS we have adapted the APA style for referencing. Details and examples can be found in the updated versions of our Guidelines documents: Guidelines for Written Work Years 7-10 and Guidelines for Essays Reports and Assignments Years 11 and 12.
Footnotes are to be inserted in the following situations:
Eg. when you have used another author’s idea or claim to influence your own ideas, conclusions and/or argument.
Eg. “Sydney is a city in Australia” WOULD NOT require a footnote. However, “the population of Sydney is
approximately 4.9 million” WOULD require a footnote.
Eg. Many authors claim that Hitler was largely responsible for the outbreak of World War Two.
This type of claim would require a footnote.
From the very outset the AAPA was to set a precedent for Aboriginal protest groups. Its aim was to improve the material conditions of Aboriginal people and end political oppression.1
(nb. the number at the end of the sentence is a superscript - reduced size, raised above the rest of the text)
(then, at foot of page: )
1 S. Turnbull. (2004). Samurai: The story of Japan’s noble warriors. London, England: PRC Publishing. p.8.
(and in the List of References/Bibliography: )
Turnbull, S. (2004). Samurai: The story of Japan’s noble warriors. London, England: PRC Publishing.
(note that the author's surname and initials are reversed for the List of References/Bibliography, and the page number is not included).
When using the footnote style, you only need to give the full source details in the first citation. You may then use “op. cit.” or a shortened title for any subsequent reference to a source already cited. Shortened titles are advised.
1 J. Healey. (Ed.). (2004). Ocean conservation. Thirroul, NSW: The Spinney Press. pp. 16-17.
2 B. Lomborg. (1998). The skeptical environmentalist. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 289.
3 Healey. op. cit. p. 29.
4 Lomborg. op. cit. p. 260.
Site with author: Author. op. cit. title of page.
Site with a corporate author: Corporate author. op. cit. Title of page.
Eg. National Gallery of Australia. op. cit. Current Exhibitions.
If you cite from source previously cited, with no other citation in between, you can use “ibid.” instead of “op. cit.” to mean that the citation is from the source you last cited.
1 C. Harrison et al. (2002). Thinking through science. London: John Murray. p. 52.
2 Ibid. p. 25.
3 Ibid. p. 81.
When footnoting only include the name of the first author (as it appears on the title page) and then write et al.
1 J. Brown et al. (2019). History in colour. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p.43.
Changes that have to be made to the first citation in order to include information in a bibliography:
When the footnotes are entered in the bibliography, you can cut and paste the first citation for each item, but since bibliographies are alphabetical, you need to:
Change each item with an author so that the surname comes first.
Items without an author are entered alphabetically in the list, using the first word that isn’t “A”, “An” or “The”.
If you want to footnote multiple sources at once, use this example as a guide, separating each source with 'and':
1 R. M. Schwartz. (1992). Nationals and nationalism: Adultery in the House of David. Critical Inquiry. 19(1). pp. 131-32. and D. N. Freedman and J. C. Geoghegan. (1995). History of David is there. Biblical Archaeology Review. 21(2). p. 79.